Dating conventions

Artifacts as time markers Pipe stem dating The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. In the s J. Harrington studied the thousands of pipe stems excavated at Jamestown and other colonial Virginia sites, noticing a definite relationship between the diameter of the pipe stem bore—or hole—and the age of the pipe of which it had been part. This change in diameter may have occurred because pipe stems became longer through time, requiring a smaller bore. Louis Binford later devised a mathematical formula to refine Harrington’s method Deetz This dating technique only applies to pipe stems manufactured in England between approximately and Historical archeologists do not rely on pipe stem fragments as the only source for determining a site’s history.

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History[ edit ] During the seventeenth-century, figurines of Buddha and other religious figures called “temple nodders” were produced in Asia. The Beatles bobblehead set, [10] which is a valuable collectible today. What finally prompted their resurgence was cheaper manufacturing processes, and the main bobblehead material switched, this time from ceramic to plastic.

It was now possible to make bobbleheads in the very limited numbers necessary for them to be viable collectibles.

Dec 13,  · This article is part one of a two part series. Part one summarizes the evolution of fintech since the s and examines the role of banks in the context of current fintech developments.

All were styled to closely resemble each other with a common and easily-used control system – but few interchangeable parts. The lathes were assembled in what was, at that time and until the early s Europe’s largest plant devoted to the manufacture of lathes. The factory had two feet-long moving-floors and a system of “flow-line” production based on automotive practice that aimed to produce a consistently high standard of quality and accuracy to “American toolroom limits of accuracy”.

However, like all production process, hidden factors contrived to make some lathes more accurate than others, a fact that Colchester turned to advantage by offering a special model, distinguished by black micrometer feed-screw dials, to an improved “toolroom” standard of accuracy – however, these lathes were not specially built but just those that inspectors had classified as the most accurate of a batch. Although the new design had its origins in earlier Colchester models, and had very similar-looking geared headstocks and apron controls, each of the new models was individually engineered and constructed for a particular class of work; whilst the Student and Master became immensely popular during the next two decades in both commercial and training workshops the 8.

Two between-centres capacities of 54″ or 78″ were available that weighed, respectively and lbs – making them twice as heavy as the machine immediately below it in size the 7. It could be supplied either straight or with a gap that, when removed, allowed a piece of material up to 29 inches in diameter and 9. Induction hardening was an optional extra, though this specification was standard on export lathes for the USA labelled “Clausing”; two between-centres capacities were available, either 54″ or 78″ between centres, both with heavy cast-iron plinths underneath both headstock and tailstock.

Although the specification laid down in the sales literature was quite unambiguous, the factory would build a batch of machines to any specification the customer wished and the author has seen, over the years, examples which combine almost as many variations of the previous differences as could be imagined. However, one unvarying feature was that, on gap bed lathes, the carriage traverse handwheel was positioned on the right-hand side of the apron and a T-slotted saddle was fitted whilst on straight bed machines the handle was always on the left and the saddle top was plain – the latter specification described in the catalogues as “Dominion” and usually involving a screwcutting gearbox with English-only threading.

Although a useful feature, a lathe with a gap bed can suffer one or two problems: When replaced the gap can cause inaccurate turning as the saddle runs over it; the cause is usually dirt between the mating surfaces or uneven tightening. Final alignment can be made with a few blows in the right direction from a hide-faced mallet before tightening the four Allen screws fully and evenly.

One tip, from a Colchester technician, is to strike the lathe bed near the gap as the bolts are tightened to help bed the gap in.

Vintage Cookery Tips & Tricks {1940s – 1950s}

I have found the tag size is usually an accurate predictor of how the garment will fit. There are exceptions, however, and I have developed this section to ensure a good fit for a peacoat bought from an online vendor, such as Ebay. A properly fitted peacoat will be trim without being tight. There will be enough room to wear a sweater underneath without binding. A sweater may be necessary to fill in the space between the body and the inside of the coat for really cold weather wear.

DATING CARD MOUNTED PHOTOGRAPHS © [email protected] – HOME – Comments Card mounted photographs from the 19th and early 20th century, such as cartes-de-visites, cabinet cards and stereographs can be generally dated by their format and mount type.

Renaissance Now, let’s look at some specific examples. One type of atom that does not normally react is Neon. See the picture to the left. It already has the correct number of electrons in it’s outside electron layer so Neon does not react. Neon, along with Helium and Argon are known as non-reacting gasses because they do not need to react to be stable. Other types of atoms such as Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen do not have the correct number of electrons to be stable by itself.

Instead they have to share electrons in molecules to get the correct number of electrons in their outside electron layer.


Was roommates with Shelley Winters when they were both starting out in Hollywood. She was Playboy’s first “Sweetheart of the Month” in December Marianne Kris, her psychoanalyst.

Ampegs can be divided into six distinct groups for dating purposes: pre, to mid, early to , to , to , and post

Clean raisins in a screw-top jar. Put in raisins and water, screw lid tightly and shake. Drain out the water and the raisins are ready for use. Instead, stick a fork in one end and squeeze out the juice required. The lemon will not dry out and can be kept for future use. To cook a cracked egg, wrap the egg in waxed paper, twist the ends and drop in boiling water.

You can quickly shave chocolate for puddings and frostings with your potato peeler. Cranberries add a good flavor to apple sauce when cooked with the apples, and give a brighter color than cinnamon drops. Pastry shells will bake smoothly without blisters if, after placing the crust in the pan and pricking, you place another pie tin of the same size on top of the dough.

Where Did the Taco Come From?

Article by Mitchell Stephens Few inventions have had as much effect on contemporary American society as television. Before the number of U. By the late s, 98 percent of U. The typical American spends depending on the survey and the time of year from two-and-a-half to almost five hours a day watching television. It is significant not only that this time is being spent with television but that it is not being spent engaging in other activities, such as reading or going out or socializing.

Fans have created a timeline of the Harry Potter series from a single piece of information in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. At Nearly Headless Nick’s deathday party in that book, his death is stated to have been on 31 October, Since the celebration was commemorating the.

This information original was found on The Unofficial Ampeg Page http: I pulled this information from Google’s cache of the site. It has a note at the top of the page that they were reprinting with permission from the authors of Ampeg: If anyone feels this page should be taken down, please feel free to contact me. Ampegs can be divided into six distinct groups for dating purposes: Each group uses a unique serialization scheme that can be used to assist in dating the amps, but in many cases, it is the features and characteristics of the amps that determine the year of manufacture.

Electronic Industries Association EIA codes can also be very useful for giving clues as to an amp’s age. These codes can be found on speakers, transformers, pots, capacitors, and multi-section electrolytic “can” caps. Of course, these codes are only applicable to original components, not replacement parts. Ampeg amplifiers, especially the high-powered amps such as the SVT and V-series, contain lethal voltages even when unplugged and turned off.

Therefore, do not poke around in your old Ampeg if you are unfamiliar with amplifier electronics or their operation. A brief summary of the EIA system follows.

Dating conventions

Did you learn something today or have a vintage garment you need help dating? Identify whether the buttons are bakelite plastic, lucite plastic or modern plastic. Bakelite buttons are plastic buttons found on s and s garments. Bakelite was invented in as the first ever synthetic plastic. The infamous zipper is rarely seen on garments. Zippers always metal are most often found along the side seam.

Blueprints of Fashion: Home Sewing Patterns of s [Wade Laboissonniere] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. During the s, many women used their sewing skills to recreate the incredibly feminine styles that were adapted into commercial sewing patterns. The s saw renowned designers such as Lanvin.

After Contradictions There are numerous contradictions in the timeline, though it should be noted that, in the FAQ section of her website , Rowling has admitted having difficulty with managing mathematics, so perhaps perfect internal consistency is not to be expected. In addition, considering the Harry Potter universe is a fantasy world, it’s possible that certain dates may differ between it and the “real world”.

Despite its problems, this timeline is extensively used by fans and Warner Bros. However, several anachronisms have crept through in the movies, such as featuring the destruction of the Millennium Bridge in the film version of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince , even though the novel and the film are supposed to take place two years before the bridge was built.

In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix , the Dursleys are seen to have a flat-screen television, which were not commonly available in the mid s. In addition the Dursley’s car, shown in the same film, bears a year registration plate.

Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale

Glossary of Industry Terms History of Containerization Modern container shipping celebrated its 50th anniversary in The idea of using some type of shipping container was not completely novel. Boxes similar to modern containers had been used for combined rail- and horse-drawn transport in England as early as The US government used small standard-sized containers during the Second World War, which proved a means of quickly and efficiently unloading and distributing supplies.

Reasoning that a fuze capable of exploding a warhead near a hot target could also be made to home in on it, McLean sought to put a guidance system entirely onboard a standard 5-inch air-to-ground rocket.

Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.

Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age. When a date is quoted, the reader should be aware that if it is an uncalibrated date a term used for dates given in radiocarbon years it may differ substantially from the best estimate of the actual calendar date, both because it uses the wrong value for the half-life of 14 C, and because no correction calibration has been applied for the historical variation of 14 C in the atmosphere over time.

The different elements of the carbon exchange reservoir vary in how much carbon they store, and in how long it takes for the 14 C generated by cosmic rays to fully mix with them. This affects the ratio of 14 C to 12 C in the different reservoirs, and hence the radiocarbon ages of samples that originated in each reservoir.

5 Construction Clues for Dating Vintage Clothing

Knowing the Styles for Women 1 Find a fitted blouse. Quarter length sleeves were popular during this time period. The shoulders were fitted rather than puffy. However, sleeveless blouses were also popular. Small collars close to the neckline, called Peter Pan collars, were typically round in shape.

HOME: Bottle Dating. INTRODUCTION. This page and associated sub-pages allows a user to run an American produced utilitarian bottle or a significantly sized bottle fragment through a series of questions based primarily on diagnostic physical, manufacturing related characteristics or features to determine the approximate manufacturing age range of the item.

When asked to imagine this lost group, images of bobbysoxers, letterman jackets, malt shops and sock hops come instantly to mind. Images like these are so classic, they, for a number of people, are “as American as apple pie. Because of these entertainment forums, these images will continue to be a pop cultural symbol of the ‘s.

After the second World War, teenagers became much more noticeable in America Bailey Their presence and existence became readily more apparent because they were granted more freedom than previous generations ever were. Teenagers like these were unique. They were given a chance to redefine the ways things were done in America. One of the conventions they put a new spin on, and consequently revolutionize, is the idea and practice of dating. The ‘s set up precedents in dating that led to what many consider “normal” dating today.

Then again, few other countries have the same social conditions as America. Since the turn of the century, there has been a greater freedom between men and women, for example, both attend the same schools with the same classes.

1950s Dating Dilemmas Finding The Right Man